Irregular verbs

The verbs in roman type are verbs which are not very common in modern English but may be found in literature. When a verb has two possible forms and one is less usual than the other, the less usual one will be printed in roman.

Compounds of irregular verbs form their past tenses and past participles in the same way as the original verb:        come      came        come

overcome                   overcame                       overcome

set                               set                              set

upset                           upset                           upset


Present and infinitive

Simple past

Past participle

abide abode abode
arise arose arisen
awake awoke/awaked awoken/awaked
be was been
bear bore borne/born
beat beat beaten
become became become
befall befell befallen
beget begot begotten
begin began begun
behold beheld beheld
bend bent bent
bereave bereaved bereaved/bereft*
beseech besought besought
bet betted/bet betted/bet
bid (=command) bade bidden
bid (=offer) bid, bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled Died
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burned/burnt burmed1burni
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cant could be able
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
chide chid chidden
choose chose chosen
cleave clove/cleft cloven/cleft
cling clung clung
clothe clothed/clad clothed/clad
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
crow crowed/crew crowed
cut cut cut
dare dared/durst dared1durst
Deal/ di:l/ Dealt/delt/ dealt/delt/
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream drearned1drewnt dreatned1dreatnt
/dri:m/ /dri: md, dremt/ /dri:md, dremt/
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelled/dwelt dwelled/dwelt
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbear forbore forborne
forbid forbade/fe’  baed/ forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got got
gild gilded/gilt gilded/gilt
gird girded/girt girded/girt
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hanged4hung hunged1hung
have had had
hear/hle(r)/ heard /h3:d/ heard/h3:d/
hew hewed hewed/hewn
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep keeps kept
kneel knelt knelt
knit knit knit
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean Leaned /leant Icaned/leant
/Ii:n/ /li:nd,lent/ /li:nd, lent/
leap leaped/leapt leaped/leapt
/Ii:p/ /li:pt, lept/ /li:pt,lept/
learn Leaned/learnt Learned /lernt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lighted/lit lighted/lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mav might
mean/mi:n/ meant/mend meant/ment/
meet met met
mow mowed mowed/mown
must had to
pay Paid paid
put put put
read/r:id/ read/red/ read/red/
rend rent rent
Ad lid rid
Me M& ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed saived1swan
say/sel/ said/sed/ said/sed/
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sesve4lsewn
shall should shaken
shear sheared/shore sheared/shorn
shed shed – ‘
shine shone shone
shoe shoed/shod shoed/shod
shoot shot shot
show showed                                showed/shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
slit slit slit
smell Smelled/smelt smelled/smelt
smite smote smitten
sow sowed sowed/sown
speak spoke spoken
speed Speeded/sped speeded/sped
spell spelled/spelt spelled1spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilled/spilt spilled/spilt
spin sprat spun
spit spat spat
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank/stunk stunk
strew strewed Strewed/strewn
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swelled/swollen
swim swain swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
thrive thrived/throve thrived/thriven
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden1toid
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
wake waked/woke waked/woken
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
weep wept wept
wet wetted/wet wetted/wet
will would  –
win won won
wind wound wound
wring wrung wrung
write  wrote written